I. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace,[a] immediately instituted by God,[b] to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him;[c] as also, to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the church and the rest of the world;[d] and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to his word.[e]
II. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.[f]
III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it,[g] but upon the work of the Spirit,[h] and the word of institution; which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.[i]
IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord; neither of which may be dispensed by any but by a minister of the word, lawfully ordained.[k]
V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New.[l]
[l] 1 Cor. 10:1-4.