Chapter 27: Of the Sacraments

I. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace,[a] immediately instituted by God,[b] to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him;[c] as also, to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the church and the rest of the world;[d] and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to his word.[e]

[a] Rom. 4:11. Gen. 17:7,10.
[b] Matt. 28:19. 1 Cor. 11:23.
[c] 1 Cor. 10:16. 1 Cor. 11:25,26. Gal. 3:17.
[d] Rom. 15:8. Exod. 12:48. Gen. 34:14.
[e] Rom. 6:3,4. 1 Cor. 10:16,21.

II. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.[f]

[f] Gen. 17:10. Matt. 26:27,28. Tit. 3:5.

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it,[g] but upon the work of the Spirit,[h] and the word of institution; which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.[i]

[g] Rom. 2:28,29. 1 Pet. 3:21.
[h] Matt. 3:11. 1 Cor. 12:13.
[i] Matt. 26:27,28. Matt. 28:19,20.

IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord; neither of which may be dispensed by any but by a minister of the word, lawfully ordained.[k]

[k] Matt. 28:19. 1 Cor. 11:20,23. 1 Cor. 4:1. Heb. 5:4.

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New.[l]

[l] 1 Cor. 10:1-4.

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