All Saints Catechism Supplement

Download printable PDF

Theological Foundations 

Q1. What are the two ways God communicates knowledge of Himself to men?

Natural revelation and special revelation.

Q2. What is natural revelation?

God’s non-redemptive revelation of Himself in creation and providence. Psa. 19:1-4; Rom 1:18-21.

Q3. What is special revelation?

God’s redemptive revelation of Himself in the Bible. Psa. 19:7-8; John 5:39.

Q4. What is the Bible?

God’s inspired, infallible, inerrant word.

 Q5. How many books are in the Bible?


 Q6. How many in the OT?


Q7. How many in the NT?


 Q8. Who wrote the Bible?

Men under the direct control of the Holy Spirit. 2 Pet. 1:21.

Q9. What does inspiration mean?

God breathed. 2 Tim. 3:16.

Q10. Are there any errors in the Bible?

No, the Holy Spirit directed men to reveal the truth with 100% accuracy.

 Q11. What are the two parts of the Bible?

Law and gospel. Rom. 10:5-6; Gal. 3:12.

Q12. What is law?

God’s commands. Lev. 18:5.

Q13. Where do we find the law in scripture?

In the Old and New Testaments.

 Q14. What is gospel?

God’s promises fulfilled in the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

 Q15. Where is the gospel found in the Bible?

In type, shadow, and promise in the Old Testament and fulfillment in the person and work of Christ in the New Testament. Gen. 3:15; Col. 2:16-17; Heb. 8:5, 10:1.

Q16. What are the two major covenants of Scripture?

Covenant of works and covenant of grace.

 Q17. What is a works covenant?

A legal arrangement between God and man, where man earns reward by his complete obedience to God’s commands. Exo. 24:24-26; Lev. 18:5; Deut. 27:26.

Q18. What is a grace covenant?

A legal arrangement between God and his people, where man receives salvation from God, by grace alone and faith alone, through the work of Christ alone. Gen. 3:15, 15:1-6, 17:1ff; Jer. 31:1-33; Matt. 26:28; 2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 9:15.

Q19. What kind of covenant did God first make with Adam in the Garden?

A covenant of works. Gen. 2:17; Rom. 5:12,17-19.

Q20. What are the 3 ecumenical creeds?

The Apostles Creed, Nicene Creed, and Chalcedonian Definition.

 Q21. What are the 3 Reformed Presbyterian confessional standards?

The Westminster Confession of Faith, the Westminster Larger Catechism, and the Westminster Shorter Catechism.

 Q22. Do these creeds and confessions have the same authority as the Bible?

No, we believe these creeds and confessions are subordinate to Scripture, but we also heartily maintain that they do fully agree with the Word of God.

 Doctrine of God

Q23. How many persons are there in the Godhead?

Three persons. Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14.

Q24. Who are they?

The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Q25. Is the Father, God? Is the Son, God? Is the Spirit, God?

Yes, these three persons are fully and eternally God.

 Q26. Are there three gods?

No, there is only one God, who has revealed himself in three eternally distinct persons. Deut. 6:4; Rom. 3:30.

Q27. Is the Father the Son, the Son the Spirit, or the Spirit the Father?

No, they are three eternally distinct persons who are truly, yet mysteriously, one God.
Matt. 3:16-17; Mark 12:35-36.

Q28. How many natures does Christ have?

Two, a human nature and a divine nature. 1 Tim. 2:5, 3:16; Heb. 2:14; Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:23; John 8:58-59.

Q29. Do they ever intermix?

No, they are united in one person, but never intermix. Act. 2:30; Rev. 1:12-13.

Q30. Is the human nature wherever the divine nature is?

No, the divine nature is omnipresent, that is everywhere present in its fullness, but the human nature is finite, and located at the right hand of God. Psa. 139:7-10; Acts 2:30.

Q31. How many kingdoms does Christ as mediator and God-man have?

Two, the kingdom of power and the kingdom of grace.

 Q32. What is the kingdom of power?

The kingdom of power is Christ’s mediatorial rule over creation, providence, and the nations.
Psa. 2; Isa. 55:3-5; Daniel 7:13-14; Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20-22; Heb. 1:3.

Q33. What is the kingdom of grace?

The kingdom of grace is Christ’s mediatorial rule as King and Head over the church which is his body. John 18:36; Matt. 28:18; Col. 1:13,18; Eph. 1:20-23.


Q34. What are the five pillars of the Protestant Reformation?

Scripture alone, faith alone, grace alone, Christ alone, to God be the glory alone.

 Q35. How important is the word “alone” in the Protestant pillars?

The word “alone” marks the difference between a true and false gospel. Gal. 1:8; 1 Tim. 1:3.

Q36. Why do the Protestant pillars begin with “scripture alone”?

Because everything we believe and practice as believers is to be grounded in the word of God.
1 Tim. 3:14; 2 Tim. 3:16-17.

Q37. What does it mean to glorify God?

It means to keep God’s commandments in the power of the Holy Spirit for God’s glory.
1 Cor. 10:31.

Q38. What does the “T” in TULIP mean?

Total depravity, that is, man is completely sinful in every part of his being. Psa. 51:5; Rom. 3:10-18.

Q39. What does the “U” in TULIP mean?

Unconditional election, that is, God’s sovereign choice of individuals, in eternity past, unto salvation in Jesus Christ. Eph. 1:4; Acts 13:48; Rom. 9:11,16.

Q40. What does the “L” in TULIP mean?

Limited atonement, that is, Christ died to save his people from their sins. Matt. 1:21; John 10:11, 10:15, 15:13; Isa. 53:6; Matt. 20:28; Gal. 3:13.

Q41. What does the “I” in TULIP mean?

Irresistible grace, that is, God sovereignly applies Christ’s redemptive work to fallen sinners whom He has chosen. Acts 9:5; 5:39; 1 Cor. 10:22; Isa. 45:9.

Q42. What does the “P” in TULIP mean?

Perseverance of the saints, that is, God sovereignly preserves His people in salvation, through the means of grace, in the context of the church, under the rule of the elders. 1 Pet. 1:5; Acts 2:42; 2 Cor. 6:1; 2 Tim. 4:2; 1 Cor. 11:23-26; Heb. 13:17.

 Q43. What does the word “election” mean?

God’s sovereign choice of individuals, in eternity past, unto salvation in Christ, apart from considering whether there was anything good in them. Eph. 1:4; Rom. 8:29-30; 1 Thess. 1:3.

 Q44. Does God choose man to salvation because of anything good He sees in man?

No, God chooses sinners unto eternal salvation in Christ, purely out of sovereign love. Eph. 1:4-5.

Q45. What does regeneration mean?

God giving man a new nature to believe the truth and respond to the gospel in faith and obedience. John 3:3-5; Acts 16:14.

Q46. Which person of the Trinity performs the work of regeneration?

God the Holy Spirit. John 3:8; 1Thess. 1:5.

Q47. What does atonement mean?

Christ offering his body on the cross as a sacrifice for sin, in order to satisfy God’s wrath. Rom. 3:25; 1 Jo. 2:2; Gal. 3:13.

Q48. Which person of the Trinity performs the atonement?

God the Son. John 3:16; 1 Jo. 4:10.

Q49. What does justification mean?

God declaring a person righteous with respect to the law. Rom. 3:28, 4:3, 4:6.

Q50. What are the two parts of justification?

Pardon for sin through the shed blood of Christ and the imputation of Christ’s righteousness. Rom. 3:24-25; Gal. 2:16.

Q51. What is the instrument of justification?

Faith alone. Gal. 2:16; Rom. 4:5.

Q52. Where does faith come from?

The Holy Spirit works faith in the heart through the preaching of the gospel. Rom. 10:14; Acts 16:14; 1 Thess. 1:5.

Q53. What does sanctification mean?

God working righteousness in a justified person. Rom. 6:13-14; 1 Jo. 3:3.

Q54. What are the two parts of sanctification?

Putting to death sin, and living in obedience to God’s commandments in thought, word, and deed. Rom 6:12; 8:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 4:1; Eccl. 12:13.

Q55. Where do we receive grace in order that we may grow in sanctification?

The Holy Spirit works grace in us through the preaching of the word and the sacraments. Rom. 10:14-17; John 6:56-58.

Q56. Why should Christians pray regularly?

Because it is our response of thankfulness to God for our redemption, and because God gives His grace and Holy Spirit only to those who unceasingly ask these things of Him and return thanks unto Him for them. Psa. 50:14-15; Luke 11:9-10,13.

Q57. What are the three uses of the law?

The first use convicts sinners of sin and drives them to the cross of Christ for forgiveness, the second use sets a standard of righteousness for the civil realm, and the third use shows believers how to live for God’s glory in all of life. Rom. 3:20, 7:7; 1 Jo. 1:9; Rom. 7:24-25; 13:3-5; Matt. 5:16; Rom. 14:19.

 Q58. How does the first use of the law apply to Christians?

Christians ought daily to learn of their sin and misery from the law, and in turn appeal constantly to the blood, suffering, death, and obedience of Jesus Christ. Rom. 7:24-25; 1 Jo. 2:1-2.

Q59. How does the third use of the law apply to Christians?

Christians ought to daily remind themselves of their duty to obey God in everything as a grateful response for their redemption in Christ. Eph. 5:8-11; Col. 3:17.

Q60. Do Christians have to keep the law?

Yes, not to earn God’s favor, but in order that they may continually show God their thankfulness for redemption in Christ. Rom. 13:8-10; 1 Jo. 2:3-6.

Q61. What should all Christians do with their faith?

Testify about the grace of Christ to unbelievers. Matt. 28:19; Luke 10:27.

Q62. What does someone need to know about themselves in order to want Christ and the gospel?

That they are totally depraved and under the wrath and curse of God unless they repent of their sin and turn to Christ for salvation. John 3:6, 3:18; Gal. 3:10.


Q63. What is the session?

The pastors and elders of a particular congregation who rule the church, preside over the worship, disciple its members in the faith, and exercise spiritual discipline according to the word of God. Acts 14:23; Tit. 1:5; Acts 20:28-31.

Q64. What is the deacon board?

The deacons of a particular congregation, who minister mercy, oversee the work of the treasurer, prepare the annual congregational budget, and teach principles of giving as needed.

 Q65. How many offices are there in the church?

There are two offices, the office of minister of the word and sacraments (teaching elder) and ruling elder, and the office of deacon. Eph. 4:11; 1 Tim. 3:1-15; 5:17.

Q66. What is the responsibility of the office of minister of the word (teaching elder)?

To faithfully preach God’s word, administer the sacraments, and assist the elders in ruling and shepherding God’s people. 2 Tim. 4:2; 1 Cor. 10:16.

 Q67. What is the responsibility of the office of ruling elder?

To rule over and diligently watch over and shepherd God’s people. 1 Tim. 3:1-7, 5:17; Tit. 1:5-9; Acts 20:28-31.

Q68. What are the two “keys” of the kingdom?

The two keys of the kingdom are the preaching of the word and exercise of church discipline.
Matt. 16:18-19, 18:18; John 20:23; Rev. 1:18; Rom. 10:13-17; Luke 24:46-47.

Q69. Who exercises the keys of the kingdom?

Only lawfully ordained ministers may preach the word, and the elders acting together administer church discipline. Heb. 13:17; 1 Thess. 5:12; Matt. 16:18-19.

Q70. What is the responsibility of the office of deacon?

To minister mercy to the suffering and needy in the name of Christ. Acts 6:1-6; 1 Tim. 3:8-13.

Q71. What is the regulative principle of worship?

We may worship God in no other way than He has commanded in His word. Deut. 4:15-19, 12:30-32; Matt. 15:9; Col. 2:23.

Q72. When does God speak to us in worship?

In the call to worship, the greeting, the reading of the law, the absolution, the reading of the word, the preaching of the word, and the benediction.

Q73. When does the congregation speak to God?

In the singing of Psalms, in corporate confession of sin, and prayer.

Q74. What are the different ways the Psalms lead us to approach God in worship?

The Psalms teach us to approach God in praise, penitence, lament, and in prayers for help.

Q75. What are the three marks of the true church?

The faithful preaching of the word of God, the proper administration of the sacraments, and Christian discipline. Gal. 1:8; 1 Tim. 3:15; Acts 19:3-5; 1 Cor. 11:20-29.

Q76. Is a church that does not baptize the children of believers a true church?

No, if a church fails to administer baptism to any portion of God’s people, it fails to submit to God, and manifests itself to be a false church. Gen. 17:9-12; Exo. 4:24-25; Acts 2:39; 1 Cor. 7:14.

Q77. What are the means of grace?

The preaching of the word of God and the sacraments. Rom. 10:17; 4:11.

Q78. Where is all grace located?

All grace is located in Christ. 2 Tim. 2:1.

Q79. What means does Christ use to communicate his grace?

Christ has ordained the preaching of the word and the administration of the sacraments as the ordinary way in which He communicates His grace to His people. Rom. 10:13-17; Luke 24:46-47; Matt. 28:19-20.

Q80. How many sacraments are there and what are they?

There are only two sacraments, Holy Baptism and Holy Communion.

Q81. Why should baptism be administered to children of believers?

Because children of believers are members of the covenant and therefore have a right to this sign and seal of the covenant. Gen. 17:9-12; Acts 2:39; 1 Cor. 7:14.

Q82. Does the bread become the body of Christ and does the wine become the blood of Christ in the Lord’s Supper?

No, the elements remain what they are, bread and wine. Matt. 26:26; 1 Cor. 10:16.

Q83. Do believers actually feed on the body and blood of Christ in the Lord’s Supper? How?

Yes, when believers partake of the bread and wine, by faith, through the power of the Holy Spirit, they actually feed on Christ’s body and blood. Matt. 26:26; John 6:55-56; Eph. 3:16-17; 1 Cor. 10:1-4.

 Q84. Who may partake of the Lord’s Supper?

Believers who have been received into the visible church through making a credible profession of faith to the elders and are not under Christian discipline. 1 Cor. 10:19-22, 11:28-29, 5:7-9.

Q85. How frequently should the church observe the Lord’s Supper?

As often as the church meets for worship on the Lord’s Day. Luke 22:19; Acts 2:42, 20:7; 1 Cor. 11:20.